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Levels and freedoms of open science

Published onNov 11, 2020
Levels and freedoms of open science

The 7 Levels of Open Science

by Jonathan Haehn (from a CC talk, October 2020)

Open access
Open source
Open data & material
Open standards
Open science
…Fully reproducible science

Level -1: Behind a paywall

Hello, Sci-hub. RIP Aaron Swartz.

Level 0: Paper on your personal/group website

Level 1: Code in a shared repository

Ex: Paper on your department site and code on Gitlab. Version control, permalinks to specific code versions. Makes experimenting easier.

Level 2: Code + data both in shared repositories

Ex: Paper on your site, code on Gitlab, data + files on Zenodo or Dataverse.
Version control + uniqwue identifiers (HDL, DOI). Zenodo supports DOIs for code too.

Makes running similar experiments on the same data easier.

Level 3: Parameters, models, + results available

Use permanent IDs for models, datasets, protocols. Zenodo does some of this; other specialized groups like Datacite and do as well.

This is reproducible science! Makes replication possible. For full replication cleanliness, aim for something comporehensive like the Whole Tale.

Level 4: Raw material available

(Is this for bio specifically? like Addgene, reagent IDs, making sure copies of any custom materials / environments are copied + stored + accessible?)

Level 5: … all archived together under an open license

For instance: stored on
Use a free-content license to support access, reuse, and redistribution forever.

Level 6: With preregistration of the research

via or others

Level 7: Also preregistering analysis plans

avoiding the forking-paths and other fallacies in understanding the implications of research, possible parallels, and the importance or impact of carrying out further successful replications.

..and beyond: Encourage an open science mindset

Use collaborative tools and interfaces (and annotatable documents)
Implement collaboration policies in classes
Encourage sharing at public conferences, fixing issues in open source packages, and using free licenses to share work.

The 7 Fundamental Freedoms of Open Science

by Jonathan Tennant (from a TG chat, March 2020)

  1. Inspect the research process in its entirety (materials, data, and code are examples of prerequisites for this)

  2. Redistribute copies of research outputs so you can help your neighbor.

  3. Reuse any output of published research as you wish for any intended purpose and without restriction

  4. Adapt research and share adapted processes and outputs, so that whole communities can benefit from changes

  5. Collaborate through revision and forking, so that research becomes a truly public endeavor

  6. Capture and preserve provenance: acknowledge all manner of contribution to research

  7. Make evaluations of merit or significance that are explicit, transparent, and selectable.

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